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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl5074\margr1583\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn5074\margrsxn1583\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li4\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx1098 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-16\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 338{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw7 MOSLEM RULE: LATER HISTORY}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri0\sb223\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 (Bhinmal?), Jurz (Gurjara kingdom of Western India), \expndtw2 and other territories, but against Ujjain he could merely \expndtw1 make an incursion. In this direction he was perhaps re\-\expndtw4 pulsed by Nagabhata I. From this time onwards the \expndtw2 Pratihata kings continued to be the greatest foes of the \expndtw6 Moslems and their faith, and this compelled the latter \expndtw8 to seek the alliance of the Balharas (Vallabharajas), i.e., the Rastrakutas of Manyakheta. It is likely the \expndtw1 Arabs might have achieved more successes in the inter\-\expndtw10 ior of India, if the Pratiharas had not offered them a}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li202\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0\tx1937 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 ^    .      \sub c{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\i0\nosupersub\expndtw3 determined    opposition.    In   Sind}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li205\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx3762\tx5238 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 Results of contact    \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'ab{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw7\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 r n         j{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw0 r}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 the   conquerors   followed    a    rar-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li25\fi0\ri25\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 sighted policy of toleration.\super 1\nosupersub  No doubt, Islam spread, \expndtw11 but Hindu temples were considered "inviolate like \expndtw4 the churches of the Christians, the synagogues of the \expndtw6 Jews, and the altars of the Magians," The Brahmans \expndtw7 were even permitted to build or repair dilapidated \expndtw3 temples. While the Arab garrisons were stationed at \expndtw1 strategic centres, the internal administration was mostly \expndtw2 left in the hands of the natives, who paid the land-tax \i\expndtw6 (khlrdj) \i0 and the poll-tax \i (je^iya). \i0 The Arabs also in \expndtw0 certain respects yielded to the subtle influences of their \expndtw6 Indian environments. For instance, they learnt As\-\expndtw2 tronomy and Mathematics from the Hindus, and trans\-\expndtw1 lated into Arabic the work of Caraka and the fables \expndtw3 of the \i ^anca-tantra?}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li61\fi0\ri0\sb194\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Later History}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li526\fi0\ri0\sb94\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The later history of Sind is mainly of local interest.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li36\fi392\ri0\sb238\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx554 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw2 The Arab invaders evidently adopted this policy to conci\-\line \expndtw-2 liate the people and establish their authority in Sind on a firm foot\-\line \expndtw6 ing.   Besides, their outlook must have, to  some extent, been\line \expndtw3 affected  by  admixture of blood,  which  was  inevitable as the\line conquerors did not bring women with them.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li36\fi392\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx554 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\i\expndtw-2 Dy. Hisf. North. Ind.\sub s\nosupersub  \i0 Vol. I, pp. 20-24.  I have carefully and\line \expndtw0 profitably utilised both the volumes, so full of useful suggestions\line \expndtw3 and information, for the history of medieval Hindu dynasties.}\par }